Unlocking the Potential of eClinical Technologies


Key considerations for successful implementation in decentralized clinical trials.


Decentralized clinical trials (DCTs) are a modern approach to clinical research, leveraging technology to shift the trial process from traditional site-based settings to more convenient, patient-centric approaches. By incorporating remote data collection methods and digital health technologies, DCTs aim to enhance patient accessibility, engagement, and overall experience in clinical research. As DCTs gain traction, the implementation and effective use of eClinical technologies have become increasingly important, and understanding its aspects within the context of regulatory guidance is essential for the successful execution of such trials.

This article aims to provide an overview of the eClinical technology aspects outlined in FDA guidance on DCTs, highlighting the importance of these technologies in successfully implementing them. By gaining a deeper understanding of FDA's recommendations and eClinical technologies' role, clinical research stakeholders can better navigate the challenges associated with DCTs and harness their full potential for improving patient outcomes and experiences while maintaining compliance with FDA regulations.

FDA guidance on DCTs

Brief summary of the FDA guidance document

FDA has published a guidance document on decentralized clinical trials to provide sponsors, investigators, and other stakeholders with recommendations on the design, conduct, and execution of these trials while maintaining patient safety, data quality, and regulatory compliance. The guidance addresses various aspects of DCTs, including electronic informed consent, telehealth visits, remote monitoring, data integrity, and the roles of local healthcare providers (HCPs).

Importance of technology in DCTs according to FDA guidance

FDA guidance emphasizes the crucial role of technology in successfully implementing DCTs. The document highlights several eClinical technologies essential for efficient data collection, management, and analysis in a decentralized setting. Key points mentioned in the guidance include:

Electronic Informed Consent (eConsent): FDA encourages using eConsent in DCTs to facilitate informed decision-making by trial participants while ensuring the process complies with regulatory requirements. eConsent platforms should be designed to provide transparent information, enable electronic signatures, and maintain proper documentation and security.

Telehealth Visits: Telehealth technologies play an essential role in DCTs by allowing remote assessment and monitoring of trial participants. The FDA guidance recommends that telehealth visits should be deemed appropriate when they do not pose significant risks to participants and can ensure accurate assessment and documentation of adverse events.

Remote monitoring: eClinical technologies such as digital health technologies (DHTs) enable remote monitoring and data collection in DCTs. The FDA guidance underscores the need for a well-defined safety monitoring plan that accounts for the decentralized nature of the trial, ensuring that adverse events are captured and addressed effectively.

eClinical Technology Integration: The guidance acknowledges the importance of eClinical technologies in managing various trial-related activities, such as electronic case report forms (eCRFs), visit scheduling, and investigational product tracking. These technologies should be designed to ensure data reliability, security, privacy, and confidentiality.

Compliance and Regulatory Considerations: The FDA guidance emphasizes compliance with applicable federal, state, and international laws and regulations when using eClinical technologies in DCTs. This includes adherence to FDA regulations such as 21 CFR Part 11, which governs electronic records and eSignatures.

Key eClinical technology considerations in DCTs

Software used in conducting DCTs

Functions and Platforms: Software solutions are crucial in managing various aspects of DCTs, from electronic informed consent and data collection to communication and trial visit scheduling. These solutions can be accessed through various platforms, such as tablets, smartphones, and personal computers. Some of the key functions performed by software in DCTs include:

  • Managing electronic informed consent (e.g., maintaining approved versions, documenting IRB approval, archiving signed forms)
  • Capturing and storing reports from remote trial personnel, local HCPs, and local clinical laboratory facilities
  • Managing eCRFs
  • Scheduling trial visits and other DCT-related activities
  • Tracking investigational products shipped to trial participants
  • Syncing information recorded by DHTs
  • Serving as communication tools between trial personnel and participants

Training and Access for Trial Personnel, Local HCPs, and Trial Participants: It is essential to train all parties involved in the trial, including trial personnel, local HCPs, and trial participants, on using software to support DCTs. Proper training ensures that users can effectively navigate the software and understand its functionalities. Additionally, granting appropriate access to authorized personnel is vital for maintaining data integrity and regulatory compliance. Providing ongoing support to field questions and technical difficulties from user types is also critical.


Data Collection and Monitoring: DHTs are integral components of DCTs, enabling remote monitoring and data collection from trial participants. These technologies may include wearable devices, sensors, and mobile applications to capture various health-related data points. The FDA guidance emphasizes the importance of a well-defined safety monitoring plan that accounts for the use of DHTs in DCTs, ensuring that adverse events are captured, analyzed, and addressed effectively.

Addressing Abnormal Findings or Electronic Alerts: DHTs may generate electronic alerts or uncover abnormal findings during data collection. The safety monitoring plan should clearly describe the types of information that DHTs will collect, how this information will be used and monitored, and what actions trial participants or personnel should take in response to abnormal findings or alerts. Depending on the nature of the findings and potential risks, this may involve follow-up telehealth visits, in-person visits, or additional assessments.

Data reliability, security, privacy, and confidentiality

Compliance with 21 CFR part 11

In the context of DCTs, using eClinical technologies introduces new data reliability, security, privacy, and confidentiality considerations. The FDA guidance highlights the importance of adhering to 21 CFR part 11, which outlines the regulations for electronic records and eSignatures. Compliance with these regulations is crucial for ensuring the validity, trustworthiness, and accessibility of electronic data throughout the clinical trial process.

Ensuring data integrity and quality

To maintain data integrity and quality in DCTs, trial sponsors and investigators must take several measures:

Implement robust data management systems: Utilize software programs that meet the requirements of the FD&C Act and FDA regulations, ensuring data reliability, security, privacy, and confidentiality.

Develop a list of authorized data originators: Establish a comprehensive list of authorized data originators, including trial personnel, local HCPs, and other stakeholders, who have permission to input trial-related data into the eCRF.

Monitor data in real-time: Actively monitor data collected by eClinical technologies, such as DHTs, to identify and address any data discrepancies, errors, or issues promptly.

Maintain data security and privacy: Implement strong security measures, such as encryption and access controls, to protect electronic data from unauthorized access, tampering, or loss. Additionally, ensure that data privacy is maintained per applicable laws and regulations, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

By implementing these measures, trial sponsors and investigators can ensure data reliability, security, privacy, and confidentiality in DCTs, ultimately contributing to the overall success and validity of the clinical trial.

Key challenges that stand out in implementing eclinical technologies in DCTs

Data integration and interoperability

One of the primary challenges in implementing eClinical technologies in DCTs is ensuring seamless data integration and interoperability between different systems and devices. As DCTs often involve multiple digital health technologies, software platforms, and data sources, it is crucial to establish a standardized and efficient method for data exchange and synchronization. This process can be complicated by the diverse nature of data formats and structures, making it necessary for trial sponsors and investigators to develop and adopt strategies for effective data standardization, integration, and harmonization.

Training and support for trial stakeholders

Implementing eClinical technologies in DCTs requires adequate training and support for all trial stakeholders, including trial personnel, local HCPs, and trial participants. Ensuring that all parties are familiar with the software and devices used in the trial is essential to maintain data quality and compliance with regulatory requirements. This may involve developing comprehensive training materials, providing hands-on training sessions, and offering ongoing support throughout the trial. The challenge lies in ensuring that training is effective and accessible to stakeholders with varying levels of technical expertise and experience in clinical research.

Ensuring adherence to regulatory requirements

Another challenge in implementing eClinical technologies in DCTs is ensuring adherence to the complex regulatory requirements governing clinical trials. As DCTs involve the use of electronic records, electronic signatures, and digital health technologies, trial sponsors and investigators must navigate various regulations such as 21 CFR part 11, HIPAA, GDPR, and others. Ensuring compliance with these regulations can be complicated by the decentralized nature of DCTs and the involvement of multiple stakeholders, each with their own set of responsibilities and requirements. Trial sponsors and investigators must develop and maintain robust systems for monitoring and managing compliance across all aspects of the trial, including data management, reporting, and quality assurance.

My recommendations for successful eClinical technology implementation in DCTs

Establishing robust systems and processes

To ensure successful eClinical technology implementation in DCTs, in my opinion, trial sponsors and investigators should establish robust systems and processes for data management, communication, and collaboration. This may include selecting interoperable technologies, developing standardized data formats, and creating streamlined data exchange and synchronization workflows. Additionally, implementing robust quality management systems and maintaining clear documentation of trial procedures and data handling can help ensure data integrity, security, and compliance with regulatory requirements. For example, selecting an interoperable EDC system that integrates with other clinical trial technologies such as electronic informed consent and telehealth platforms. By doing so, trial sponsors and investigators can streamline data collection and management processes, reduce errors and discrepancies, and improve data quality.

Ensuring adequate training and support

Providing comprehensive training and support to all trial stakeholders is crucial for successfully implementing eClinical technologies in DCTs. This may involve developing tailored training materials, offering hands-on training sessions, and providing ongoing support throughout the trial. To ensure that training is effective and accessible, trial sponsors and investigators should consider the diverse needs of stakeholders and adapt training approaches accordingly. Also, fostering open communication and collaboration can help ensure stakeholders feel comfortable asking for support and sharing feedback to improve the trial process.

Monitoring and addressing potential issues proactively

Proactive monitoring and addressing potential issues can help mitigate challenges associated with eClinical technology implementation in DCTs. Trial sponsors and investigators should establish regular monitoring processes for data quality, system performance, and compliance with regulatory requirements. By identifying and addressing potential issues early, trial teams can minimize disruptions and ensure the trial remains on track. This may involve developing contingency plans, maintaining open communication channels, and fostering a culture of continuous improvement, quality, and adaptability. By proactively addressing potential challenges, trial sponsors and investigators can maximize the benefits of eClinical technologies and enhance the overall success of DCTs.


eClinical technologies play a critical role in successfully implementing and managing DCTs. These technologies enable efficient data collection, monitoring, and communication among trial stakeholders, which can help streamline trial processes, improve data quality, and enhance patient experiences.

Despite the numerous advantages offered by eClinical technologies, implementing them in DCTs can present unique challenges related to data integration, interoperability, training, and regulatory compliance. By fostering a culture of continuous improvement, trial teams can adapt to evolving technology landscapes and leverage innovations to enhance trial outcomes.

By establishing robust systems and processes, providing adequate training and support, and proactively monitoring and addressing potential issues, trial sponsors and investigators can harness the full potential of eClinical technologies in DCTs. Embracing these innovations can ultimately help transform the clinical trial landscape, leading to more efficient, patient-centric, and accessible research that benefits trial participants and the broader medical community.

Moe Alsumidaie, MBA, MSF, is a thought leader and expert in the application of business analytics toward clinical trials, and regular contributor to Applied Clinical Trials.

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